The Earth's magnetic field originates at a depth of 2,900 kilometers. There is the earth's core, which is essentially composed of liquid iron that is constantly being stirred. Within this core is a solid seed composed of crystallized iron and nickel. This structure and the convection movement in the liquid core give rise to the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetic field is of great importance: it deflects solar wind and cosmic particles, thus protecting life on our planet.

The North Magnetic Pole should not be confused with the geographic North Pole. Thus, the North Magnetic Pole (as well as the South Pole) is defined as a point on the Earth's surface where the magnetic field is exactly vertical. This is why a compass held horizontally at this point shows no preferred direction. However, held vertically, it will point firmly to the ground.